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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children

What is ADHD?​

ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It’s a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects how you pay attention, sit still, and control your behaviour. It occurs in children and may continue into adulthood.

ADHD can be manageable if it is spotted early. It is most commonly spotted during early childhood when the child has difficulty in paying attention or is hyperactive. It can’t be cured or prevented but therapies and individualised educational plan help the child or adult to manage their symptoms.

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Key signs to Note

Inattentive typeHyperactive-impulsive type
  • Attention seekers
  • Poor sitting tolerance, fidgeting hands and legs
  • Do not pay attention on what needs to be done
  • Roaming around in class and always restlessness
  • Incomplete notes
  • Difficulty in playing quietly
  • Makes careless mistakes
  • Blurts out answers before question is finished
  • Does not follow through instructions and fails to finish things on time
  • Acts without thinking
  • Avoid on going mental efforts
  • Cannot wait for their turn
  • Loses things (pencil, pen, notes etc)
  • Unaware of dangers
  • Easily distracted by noises
  • Low pain sensation
  • Forgetful
  • Careless/impatient/impulsive
kid in bycycle

Causes of ADHD

  • Family history & genetics- A family history increases the risk of a child developing ADHD.
  • Prenatal and neonatal risks- poor growth in the uterus (severe intrauterine growth restriction), exposure to alcohol or drugs before being born, premature birth and very low birth weight, lack of oxygen is one of majoy cause of ADHD
  • Psychological Trauma- Trauma or abuse in early childhood may affect brain development and lead to ADHD
  • Physical Trauma – Head injuries or nervous system infections might play a role in the development of this disorder.
  • Environmental Factors – Exposure to high levels of toxins, such as lead, has been linked to an increased risk of learning and attention related disorders.
kid playing

Parenting tips -

Children with ADHD generally have deficits in executive functions like the ability to think and plan ahead, organize, control their impulses, and complete tasks on time. The parents should provide extra guidance while child gradually acquires executive skills of their own.

  • Maintain a positive attitude
  • Keep a written list of positive, unique and valuable things about your child.
  • Remember that the child’s behaviour is due to the disorder and most of the time unintentional.
  • Be prepared to compromise.
  • Be patient.
kid playing

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